This story by George Orwell is a which discusses some of the wrongs of British Imperialism. A young officer in the British Police in the early 1920’s describes an experience with an elephant that had killed a villager. He tells how he felt forced to do something that he believed was wrong in order to please a large crowd of local people.
Intermediate Vocabulary Help
General Comments on the Story
Orwell is generally considered to be one of the best historical recorders of early twentieth century British culture. The events in this story take place in Burma (modern day Myanmar) in a town called Moulmein. Before becoming a writer, Orwell worked for 5 years as a police officer in Burma. Because most of his time as a policeman was spent in Moulmein, some people believe that he may have been writing of a personal experience. Something that may readers is that although Orwell is writing about experiences in Burma, he talks a number of times about ‘Indians’ and British rule over India. This is because Burma was part of Britain’s Indian Empire at the time.
Most good stories are built around some kind of . In “Shooting an Elephant”, the experiences three. In literary terms the first two are called conflicts because they have to do with the outside world. One is with the British Empire because of its unjust rule over Burma; the other is with the Burmese people because he thinks that they hate and continually make fun of him as a representative of the British Empire. His third and most difficult conflict is ; it exists totally in his mind. This is the struggle he has in choosing between doing what he believes to be the right thing, and maintaining what he believes to be the correct image in front of the crowd.
A number of s suggest that the narrator’s internal conflict is an example of . However, nothing could be further from the truth. The policeman does not think of the Burmese people as his equals. Instead he looks down on them as being of a lower class, calling them at various points mean-minded, evil-spirited coolies and natives. At the end of the story he comments that his true s – other younger officers in the police force – agreed with his thoughts that he should not have shot the elephant, using the sad reasoning that “it was a damn shame to shoot an elephant for killing a coolie, because an elephant was worth more than any damn Indian coolie”.
In my opinion, the story is an interesting example of what people here in Thailand call ““. For many years I thought that “face” was an Asian cultural . However, in a discussion on the issue with a university colleague from South Africa, he mentioned that the concept of “face” was also a major reason behind some of the terrible laws that existed in his country between 1948 and 1994. As I think about it, it may also have been part of the thinking behind the government d which existed in the United States before the Act of 1964.
One of the messages of “Shooting an Elephant” is that, in a society with many social classes, people will go to great lengths to look good and not lose “face” in the eyes of those who they consider to be of a lower class… even if this requires actions against their peer group beliefs or personal ideas about what is right and wrong.
(n: narrative essay) A story about something that happened in the past (often a real event in the life of the author) that includes and supports a thesis [an opinion that the author wishes to discuss or prove].
(adj: colonial) Of or relating to a colony. (เกี่ยวกับอาณานิคม)
(n: colony pl colonies) 1. An area that is controlled by or belongs to a country and is usually far away from it. 2. A group of people sent by a country to live in such an area. (ประชาชนในอาณานิคม) 4000
(n: bamboo pl bamboos) A tall plant with hard hollow stems that are used for building and to make furniture, tools, etc. (ต้นไผ่) 8000
(n: belief pl beliefs) Something believed or accepted as true without proof. (ลัทธิ) 3000
(n: betel, noncount) 1. An Asian climbing plant. 2. An item traditionally chewed by the peoples of SE Asia, made from the leaves of the betel plant, seeds of the areca palm (often called betel nuts) and lime. (ใบพลู)
(n: bullet pl bullets) A small piece of metal or another material that is shot out of a gun. (กระสุนปืน) 4000
(n: bunch pl bunches) A group of things of the same kind that are held or tied together or that grow together. A bunch of bananas; a bunch of flowers; a bunch of grapes; a bunch of keys. (พวง) 3000
(n: buttock pl buttocks) The soft parts of the body that a person sits on. (ก้น) 10000
(n: coolie pl coolies) An old-fashioned, offensive name for an unskilled Asian laborer who is paid low wages. (กรรมกร) 14000
(adj: cruel, crueler, cruelest) Used to describe someone who hurts others and does not feel sorry about it (โหดร้าย), or something that causes or helps to cause pain or suffering. (ซึ่งก่อให้เกิดความเจ็บปวด)
(n: cruelty pl cruelties) 1. Something which causes pain or suffering. 2. The quality or state of being cruel. (การกระทำที่โหดร้าย) 3000
(n: devil pl devils) The most powerful spirit of evil; The ruler of Hell; Satan. (ซาตาน) 3000
(adj: devilish) Looking or acting like a devil; wicked, evil.
(n: Empire pl Empires) A group of countries or regions that are controlled by one ruler or one government. (อาณาจักร) 3000.
(n: Emperor pl Emperors) A man who rules a group of countries or regions. (จักรพรรดิ) 8000
(adj: Imperial) Of or relating to an empire or an emperor. (ยิ่งใหญ่มาก) 5000
(n: exhaustion, noncount) A state of extreme tiredness or fatigue. (ความเหนื่อย) 8000
(adj: humid) (of weather) Having a lot of moisture in the air. (ชื้น) 8000
(n: hut pl huts) A small and simple house or building. (กระท่อม) 3000
(n: imperialism, noncount) The policy or practice by which a country increases its power by gaining control over other areas of the world. (ลัทธิล่าเมืองขึ้น) 5000
(n: mahout pl mahouts) The keeper and driver of an elephant. (ควาญช้าง)
(n: mask pl masks) A covering worn on the face to change or hide what you look like. (หน้ากาก) 3000
(adj: municipal) To do with a Municipality (a district, town or city able to make its own laws for local government). (เขตเทศบาล) 7000
(n: musth, noncount) A sexually active period among adult male elephants (and some other animals) during which they can become very aggressive and difficult to control.
(adj: naked) 1. Not wearing any clothes; not covered by clothing; bare. A naked body; naked shoulders. (เปลือยกาย) 2. Without the usual covering. A naked light/sword (ซึ่งไม่มีการป้องกัน) 3. (of emotions, attitudes, etc.) Expressed strongly and not hidden. naked ambition, the naked truth (ไม่ปกปิด) 3000
(n: palm pl palms) 1. The inside part of the hand between the wrist and the fingers. (ฝ่ามือ] 2. A kind of tree which grows in hot countries and has a straight, tall trunk and many large leaves at the top. (ต้นปาล์ม) 3000
(n: puppet pl puppets) A doll that can be moved by pulling strings or wires attached to it or by putting the hand inside the body. (หุ่นเชิด) 6000
(n: referee pl referees) A person whose job it is to make sure that players act according to the rules of a game or sport. (กรรมการตัดสิน) 3000
(n: sahib pl sahibs) A former term of respect for important white Europeans in colonial India, used after the person's name. (นาย)
(adj: shabby) In poor condition especially because of age or use; looking worn or dirty. (โกโรโกโส) 8000
(n: shame, noncount) 1. A feeling of guilt, regret, or sadness because you have failed at something or done something wrong or foolish. (ความอับอาย) 2. Something that causes such a feeling; a pity. (ความน่าเสียดาย) 2000
(adj: shameful) Something so bad that someone should feel shame because of it. (น่าละอาย)
(adj: shameless) Having done something shameful without feeling shame. (ซึ่งไม่อับอาย)
(v: sigh, sighs, sighed, sighing) To take in and let out a long, loud breath in a way that shows you are bored, disappointed, unhappy, relieved, etc. (ถอนหายใจ) 4000
(v: spit, spits, spat, spitting) To force something [such as food or liquid] from your mouth. (ถ่มน้ำลาย) 3000
(n: steam-roller pl steam-rollers) A large machine equipped with a heavy roller for making road surfaces flat. (รถบดถนน)
(adj: steep, steeper, steepest) [of a mountain, hill, stairs etc] Almost straight up and down; rising or falling very sharply. (สูงชัน) 3000
(n: tick pl ticks) 1. A small, quick, regular sound that is made by a machine, especially that of a watch, clock etc. (เสียงดังติ๊ก ๆ) 2. A mark (✓) used to show that something is correct, has been noted etc. (เครื่องหมายขีด) 2000
(n: trumpet pl trumpets) A brass musical wind instrument with a high, clear tone. (แตร)
(v: trumpet, trumpets, trumpeted, trumpeting) To make a sound like the instrument, such as the noise an elephant makes through its trunk. (เสียงเหมือนแตร) 5000
(n: trunk pl trunks) 1. The thick main stem of a tree from which the branches grow. (ลำต้น) 2. A large strong box that can be locked and used for holding clothes or other things, especially when traveling. (หีบใส่ของ) 3. The long nose of an elephant. (งวงช้าง) 4000
(n: tusk pl tusks) A very long, large tooth that sticks out of the mouth of an animal [such as an elephant, walrus, or wild pig, etc.]. (งาช้าง) 13000
(n: yard pl yards) 1. The area of ground around a house, usually covered with grass or plants. (สนาม) 2. An area of enclosed (fenced) ground used for a special purpose. (ลานบ้าน) 3. An old British unit of length equal to three feet or 0.9144 meters. (หลา) 2000
(v: confuse, confuses, confused, confusing) To make someone uncertain or unable to understand something. (ทำให้สับสน) 2000
(n: confusion pl confusions) The feeling that you have when you do not understand what is happening, what is expected, etc.
(n: conflict pl conflicts) A struggle or state of opposition between persons, ideas, forces or emotions. (ความขัดแย้ง) 2000
In literature, there are four main types of conflict:
- Internal conflicts, where a character experiences two opposite emotions or desires (Man vs Self); and
- External conflicts, where a character is set against another character (Man vs Man), the views of society (Man vs Society), or the forces of nature (Man vs Nature)
(n: narrator pl narrators) Someone who tells a story; a storyteller. (ผู้เล่าเรื่อง) 7000
(adj: external) Located, seen, or used on the outside or surface of something; of, for, from, or on, the outside. (ภายนอก) 3000.
In literature, an 'external conflict' is a struggle a struggle between a character and an outside force such as nature or another character. (พาเหียรการต่อสู้)
(adj: internal) Existing or located on the inside of something; of, on or in the inside of something. (ภายใน) 2000
In literature, an 'internal conflict' is a struggle within the mind of a character, arising from opposing demands or feelings. (ภายในการต่อสู้)
(n: critic pl critics) Someone, usually an expert, whose job it is to give opinions about books, movies, or other forms of art . (นักวิจารณ์) 2000
(n: peer pressure, noncount) A feeling that you must do the same things as other people of your age and social group in order to be liked or respected by them.
(v: peer, peers, peered, peering) To look closely or carefully, especially because something or someone is difficult to see. (มองหา)
(n: peer pl peers) A person who belongs to the same age group or social group as someone else. (ผู้เท่าเทียมกัน) 4000
(n: face pl faces) 1. The front part of the head that has the eyes, nose, and mouth on it. His face is familiar but I can't remember his name. (ใบหน้า) 2. (noncount) How other people see you; your status or reputation in the eyes of others. (ชื่อเสียง) 1000
(n: concept pl concepts) A general idea or understanding about what something is or how it works. (แนวความคิด) 2000
(n: apartheid, noncount) A former social system in South Africa in which black people and people from other racial groups did not have the same political and economic rights as white people and were forced to live separately from white people.
(v: approve, approves, approved, approving) To believe that something or someone is good or acceptable. (อนุมัติ) 2000 The opposite of approve is disapprove.
(n: approval pl approvals) The belief that something or someone is good or acceptable; a good opinion of someone or something (การรับรอง) 2000
(n: racism, noncount) 1. The belief that some races of people are better than others. 2. Poor treatment of or violence against people because of their race, usually involving the idea that one’s race is superior and has the right to control others. (คตินิยมเชื้อชาติ)
(adj: racist) A person or group of people who believe that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others. (เกี่ยวกับลัทธิชนชาติ, ผู้เหยียดผิว) 3000
(n: civil rights, noncount) The rights that every person should have regardless of his or her sex, race, or religion. (สิทธิของพลเมือง)
(adj: civil) Having to do with the ordinary people of a country. (เกี่ยวกับพลเมือง) 2000
(n: right pl rights) Something that a person is or should be morally or legally allowed to have, get, or do. Everyone has the right to vote. (สิทธิ) 1000