This story by Henry Lawson is important in that it acknowledges the difficult and often lonely life faced by women in mid-nineteenth century ‘‘ Australia. In the story, a woman remembers the many hardships and few good times in her life as she sits up all night with only a dog to help her protect her children from a deadly snake.
Intermediate Vocabulary Help / Exercises
(n: outback, noncount) The country areas in Australia a long way away from the coast and cities. (ชนบท) 13000
(n: aborigine pl aborigines) 1. A member of the original people to live in an area. 2. A member of any of the native peoples of Australia.
(adj: aboriginal) Of or relating to aborigines or the things that have been in a region from the earliest time. 9000
(n: bark pl barks) 1. The outer covering of a tree. 2. The loud sound made by a dog when it is angry or excited.
(v: bark, barks, barked, barking) 1. To make a loud sound like that made by a dog when it is angry or excited. The dog barked at the stranger. 2. To shout or say (something) in a loud and angry way. The captain barked orders to his men. 5000
(n: buggy pl buggies) A small light carriage, usually pulled by one horse. (รถม้าขนาดเล็กไม่มีหลังคาและประตู) 5000
(n: bullet pl bullets) A small piece of metal or another material that is shot out of a gun. (กระสุนปืน) 4000
(n: bullock pl bullocks) The word used in Australia, New Zealand and India for an Ox; a bull that has had part of its sex organs removed so that it cannot breed, once widely used on farms to pull carts, ploughs etc. (วัว; โค) 9000
(n: candle pl candles) Wax that has been formed into a stick or another shape and has a string in the middle that can be burned to give light. (เทียน) 3000
(n: cattle, noncount) A group of cows, bulls, or steers that are kept on a farm for meat or milk. (วัวควาย) 4000
(n: cattle-dog pl cattle-dogs) A special breed of dog developed in Australia for driving cattle over long distances across rough country.
(n: crack pl cracks) 1. A split or break in something that creates lines in its surface but does not separate it into pieces. (รอยแตก) 2. A sudden loud, sharp sound, such as when ice breaks or lightning strikes. (เสียงแตกเปรี้ยง)
(v: crack, cracks, cracked, cracking) 1. To make or cause a crack in something. The mirror cracked when she dropped it. (แตกร้าว) 2. To hit or press (something) so hard that it breaks apart or opens suddenly. He cracked open the eggs. (กะเทาะออก) 3. [of a voice] To change sharply in tone or pitch, especially because of strong emotion. Her voice cracked as she told them about the accident. 2000
(n: creek pl creeks) A small stream. (ห้วย) 10000
(n: crow pl crows) 1. A kind of large (usually black) bird. (นกกา) 2. The cry of a rooster. (vเสียงไก่) 5000
(v: crush, crushes, crushed, crushing) To press or squeeze (something) so hard that it breaks or loses its shape. (บีบอัด) 3000
(n: dam pl dams) A structure made of earth, concrete etc that is built across a river or stream to stop water from flowing. The government has plans to build a dam and flood the valley. (เขื่อน) 4000
(n: drought pl droughts) A long period of time during which there is very little or no rain. The drought caused the river to dry up. (ความแห้งแล้ง) 5000
(n: drover pl drovers; chiefly British) A person who moves groups of animals (such as cattle or sheep) from one place to another.
In Australia, there are special areas set aside for drovers to travel through called 'stock routes'. Animals can be driven along these for thousands of kilometers and drovers can sometimes spend months on the road.
(n: flea pl fleas) A very small blood-sucking insect that lives on animals and that has strong legs used for jumping. The dog has fleas. (หมัด) 6000
(n: flood pl floods) A large amount of water covering an area of usually dry land. The river will flood with all this rain. (น้ำท่วม)
(v: flood, floods, flooded, flooding) 1. To [cause something to] overflow with water. (ทำให้ไหลไปด้วยน้ำ) 2. To [cause something to] go or come in large numbers or as a large amount. (เต็มไปด้วย มากมายไปด้วย) 3000
(n: journal pl journals) 1. A magazine about things of interest to a particular group of people. The British Medical Journal. (นิตยสาร; วารสาร) 2. A book in which you write down your personal experiences and thoughts; diary. (บันทึกประจำวัน) 5000
(n: kangaroo pl kangaroos) An Australian animal that moves by hopping on its rear legs, the female of which carries her young in a pouch on the front of her body. (จิงโจ้) 7000
(n: kangaroo dog pl kangaroo dogs) A fierce hunting dog developed in Australia for their ability to run down animals such as kangaroos across rough country.
(n: lightning, noncount) The flashes of light that you can see in the sky during a storm, usually followed by thunder (a deep rumbling sound). (ฟ้าแลบ) 6000
(n: mongrel pl mongrels) Something that is a cross between different breeds, groups, or varieties, especially a mixture that looks strange or unusual. Commonly used to talk about a dog with parents of different and possibly unknown kinds. (พันทาง) 9000
(v: poke, pokes, poked, poking) To push your finger or something thin or pointed into or at someone or something. He poked a stick into the hole. (ผลัก) 3000
(n: possum pl possums) An informal name for opossum; a somewhat small white or gray animal that is usually active at night and that lives in North and South America and in Australia. (สัตว์เลี้ยงลูกด้วยนมมีกระเป๋าหน้าท้อง) 14000
(n: pram pl prams) A vehicle in which a baby lies while someone pushes it from place to place. Also called baby carriage (Britain) and baby buggy (U.S.) (รถเข็นเด็ก) 5000
(v: rub, rubs, rubbed, rubbing) To move something [such as your hand or an object] back and forth along the surface of something else while pressing. (คลึง) 2000
(v: sew, sewed, sewn, sewing) To make or repair something (such as a piece of clothing) by using a needle and thread. (เย็บโดยใช้เข็ม)
(n: sewing, noncount) 1. The act or process of sewing. I learned sewing at school. (การเย็บ) 2. Things that are used for sewing or that are being sewn. She took her sewing into the kitchen. (งานที่ต้องเย็บ) 3000
(n: shotgun pl shotguns) A gun with one or two long barrels that shoots many small metal balls (shot) over short distances. They are mainly used for hunting. Very small balls (bird shot) are used for small animals; larger balls (buck shot) are used for larger animals. (ปืนลูกซอง) 5000
(v: snap, snaps, snapped, snapping) 1. To break quickly with a short, sharp sound. He snapped the stick in half. (ทำให้แตกและเกิดเสียงดังแหลม) 2. To (cause to) make a short sharp noise while moving into a position. The lid snapped shut. (ทำเสียงดังแหลม) 3000
(n: stockyard pl stockyards) An enclosed area where farm animals (such as cattle) are temporarily kept. (คอก ปศุสัตว์ ชั่วคราว)
(n: swagman pl swagmen) In Australia, a usually poor or homeless man who travels around looking for work carrying his personal possessions in a 'swag'.
(n: swag pl swags) A bundle containing a person's food and belongings, often wrapped up in a blanket for carrying. (ห่อสัมภาระ) 12000
(v: swear, swears, swore, sworn, swearing) 1. To state (something) very strongly and sincerely. The boy swore that he was telling the truth. (สาบาน) 2. To use bad words or offensive language; curse. Don't swear in front of the children! (สาบแช่ง) 2000
(n: sweat, noncount) The clear liquid given out through the skin when hot, scared or nervous. (เหงื่อ)
(v: sweats, sweated, sweating) To give out sweat through the skin. (ทำให้เหงื่อออก) 3000
(n: thunder, noncount) The loud, deep rumbling sound that follows a flash of lightning during a storm. (ฟ้าร้อง)
(v: thunder, thunders, thundered, thundering) To make a very loud, deep noise. (ส่งเสียงดังคล้ายเสียงฟ้าร้อง) 3000
(n: track pl tracks) 1. A mark left on the ground by a moving animal, person, or vehicle. (ร่องรอย) 2. A path or narrow, rough road that is made by animals, people or vehicles traveling through a field, forest, etc. (ถนน) 3. A pair of metal bars that a train, tram, or subway car rides along. (รางรถไฟ) 4. An often circular path or road that is used for racing. A race/running track. (ลู่)
(v: track, tracks, tracked, tracking) 1. To follow and try to find (someone or something) by looking for its tracks and other signs that show where it has gone. He tracked the deer for a mile. 2. To follow or watch the path of (something). The ship can track incoming missiles with radar. (ตามรอย) 2000
(n: tribe pl tribes) A group of people that includes many families and relatives who have the same language, customs, and beliefs. (เผ่า เผ่าพันธุ์) 6000
(n: veranda or verandah pl verandas or verandahs) A long, open structure on the outside of a building that has a roof. Called a 'porch' in the U.S.A. (ระเบียง) 7000
(adj: worn-out) 1. Too old or damaged from use to be used any longer. My jeans were worn-out and I needed a new pair. (ซึ่งใช้จนเก่า) 2. Very tired; exhausted. I'm worn-out after working so hard today. (เหน็ดเหนื่อย)